Wednesday, 30 October 2013

THE MARBLE PALACE




The entrance gate to this beautiful palace is set amidst the almost  filthy surroundings of Muktaram Babu Street, off Chittaranjan Avenue. The spacious grounds, artistically laid out, are glittering with bronze and marble statues of, among others, Venus, Sophocles, Psyche and Demosthenes. The sudden transition from the unbeautiful exterior to the pleasant  lawns within is enchanting and awakens memories of the ancient glory of Greece and Macedonia.


In the mid-nineteenth century this philanthropist  Raja Rajendralal Mallick of the Subarnabanik community pledged their wealth to the people of Kolkata. Rajendralal Mallik,s (1819-87) dedication to the arts  and to feeding the hungry has left a lasting legacy. The Trust he set up is still ably managed by his descendents. His art gallery is open to the public free of charge , and 500 poor people are fed every day. Rajendra was the adopted son of  Nilmoni Mallick of Pathuriaghata. The  family of Mallick dates back to the earliest days of Kolkata when it was one of the few that chose to settle at Gobindapur , one of the three villages on the east bank of the river Hooghly, in preference to the then prosperous Portuguese settlement on Hughly on the west. They continued to reside at Gobindapur until it was selected as the site for the present Fort William build in 1757.  Joyram Mallick thereafter, took up his residence at Pathuriaghatta. The Mallicks  were an established family of bullion merchants whose wealth lay in the maritime trade in silver, gold and sugar. Nilmoni died when Rajendra was only three. His widowed mother moved with him from pathuriaghata to Chorbagan, where his philanthropic father had his Thakurbari or a place of worship and a permanent kitchen for feeding the poor.


A student of Hindoo College . Rajendra’s chief interests were natural history and the arts, both Western and Oriental. He was musically inclined. He continued and enlarged the paternal tradition of philanthropy. His relief  efforts  during the famine of 1865-66 earned him the title Rai Bahadur, and in 1878, Lord Lytton endowed him with the title of Raja, along with the ceremonial gift of a large diamond ring.




Rajendralal  Mallicks distinction lay in  building a lasting edifice to embody all his interests and ideals. His palace to the arts at Chorbagan  was commenced when he was sixteen. It was completed in about  five years, and named the Marble Palace by the Viceroy Lord Minto when he visited it early last century. Rajendra is said to have personally directed the 500 artisans, both Indian and foreign, who executed the plan. The architecture is a mixture of exuberant Rococo and the three European classical styles, imposed on the oriental quadrangle pattern of introverted space. This become the model for many contemporary mansions. But  Rajendra’s remains the only well-maintained edifice of its kind, one of the last true palaces left  in the erstwhile CITY OF PALACES.

 
In the centre of the gardens near a fountain of murmuring, cascading water, stands a statue of the famous founder of the palace Raja Rajendralal Mallick.  Part of the extensive Baroque garden was devoted to the menagerie of rare birds and animals, Kolkata’s  first  zoo. The Raja also sent animals and birds to various zoos in Europe : the Zoological Society of London awarded him a medal for introducing the Himalayan Pheasant to England. The tradition carries on. A black buck, spotted deer, monkeys ,and birds still occupy the cages.  The menagerie spills over into the palace itself. From a corner of the wide verandah around the open courtyard, an aviary of  cockatoos, hyacinthine macaws, mynahs and an albino crow sends sounds of life to the art galleries within, while a wayward pelican waddles in form the tank outside.


 The entrance of the palace through a long colonnaded carriage-porch into the billiard room. This is the visitor’s introduction to a kaleidoscope of marbles on floors, walls and table –tops through the museum. Rajendra Mallick himself designed the floor of the reception hall, a combination of multi-colored marbles patterned to render carpeting redundant. The etched Venetian glass panes on the doors afford a view of the green lawn where sarus, cranes and white peacocks strut between marble lions and statues. On either side, the gilt-framed Belgian mirrors from floor to ceiling created a million parallaxes. The floor has been re-set with green and white marble tiles, laid by the present generation of Mallicks.

For the most Kolkatans, the palace affords their only chance to view the art forms of Europe. A  rosewood Queen Victotoria stands larger than life beneath a Florentine ceiling in the red-veined marble room named after her. The largest Chinese vase in India sits on the floor. In the face of criticism, Rajendra Mallick placed  figures from the Greek and Roman pantheon in the thakurdalan  or house of worship. In the niches on the wall behind, figures from the Ramayana and Mahabharata stand in happy harmony. Paintings  of the Italian, Dutch, Flemish and English schools cover every  inch of walls behind and sculptures are arranged on floors. The paintings of two Indian painters in particular, Shashi Hesh and Bijay Chandra, have also been prominently displayed.



 
The Rubens Room is the only one to present  the modern concept of uncluttered exhibition. Connoisseurs, scholars and students come to see the enormous “Marriage of St. Catherine”, “Martyrdom of the St. Sebastian” ,” Minerva giving the Love cup to Appollo” and “The return of Ulysses” by Rubens, and Murillo respectively.  The art of Sir Joshua Reynolds is also present in “Child Hercules and the Serpents” and “ Venus and Cupid”.
This gallery has been renovated a few years back. The mosaic inlay on the walls has been refurbished, original frames repaired and re-touched, and the paintings cleaned and preserved according to family formula e.

The norms of modern museums do not apply to the Marble Palace. Air-conditioning would not only be out of question but, the family feels unnecessary. Ventilation and lighting in each room have been planned according to the exhibits housed there. There is a careless profusion in the display, at times almost a heedless an undiscriminating bounty. 

 Everything in this amazing collection, hidden down a narrow street in old Kolkata, calls for awe and not flippant criticism.


Sources : a)  Guide to calcutta - by Firminger.
                  b)  Recolletions of Calcutta - by M. Massey
                  c)  Handbook to Calcutta - Edired by Eardley Latimer (Calcutta Historical Society)
                  d) The Living Calcutta - by Edited by Sukanta Chowdhury.


  Research  -Santanu Roy.

        


METCALFE HALL




One of the beautiful colonial buildings in Kolkata that perpetuates the memory of Lord Charles Metcalfe located on the junction of Strand Road and Here Street is majestic Metcalfe Hall. Charles Metcalfe (1785-1846) was the Governor General of India from March,1835 to March,1836 the intervening period between the departure of Lord William Bentinck and arrival of Lord Auckland and is remembered most for his noble public deed – the emancipation of Indian Press. The Brick building was build by public subscription on a land granted by the Government as a tribute to Charles Metcalfe by his admirers.
The foundation stone of the hall was laid with ceremonial function in Masonic honour on 19th  Dec,1840  by Dr. Jemes Grant,Grandmaster of Bengal assisted by Dr. Jemes Burness, Grandmaster of Western India and 350 Master Masons. The building was completed in 1844 to accommodate the Agri-Horticulture Society in the ground floor and the Culcutta Public Library on the floor above it. These two institutions were favoured and supported by Charles Metcalfe. The design of the building was taken from the portico of the Temple of Athens by architect Mr. C. K. Rabison.


A broad flight of steps leads to the portico on the western side and there is a portico on its opposite side to the east with similar flight of steps leading to the Central Hall. The building is constructed over a solid 10 ft. high ornamental basement. Thirty beautiful corinthian columns of 36 ft. height which rise from the solid basement support the general entablature of the building. The sole appearance of the building externally gives an impression to that of an old Greek temple by means of arrangement of the columns and colonnades which almost surround the hole building enhancing its grandeur and beauty. Internally there are two stories connected by a grand staircase with each other.


The management of public library was not so good as well as Agri-Horticultural Society also could not draw much attention from the public. The building suffered from disrepair till the beginning of Vice royalty of Lord Curzon, who paid a visit to it and took the decision to house Imperial Library in it which was opened in 1903 in a renovated and refurbished Metcalfe Hall. In spite of Curzon’s patronage Imperial library in Metcalf Hall could not be continued for a long time and shifted to 5, Esplanade East. Since then Metcalf Hall  remained occupied by different Government  Departments till its final handing over to Archaeological Survey of India by the Forms and Stationary Department, Govt. Of India in 1992.


After its taking over constant effort  are being made to repair the building and maintain its pristine grandeur and glory. The ground floor of the building has  been given to The Asiatic Society to house their own books and journals and in the first floor there is a publication sales counter of Archeological Survey of India and brick museum displaying bricks of different periods in showcases in a room drawing enthusiastic attention from the public.


Source :  a)  ASI (Kolkata Circle)
               b) Custodians of the past. – 150 years of ASI.


  Research  -Santanu Roy.